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Glossary – Medical Marijuana Jargon

There’s lots of jargon when it comes to cannabis, with both slang terms and scientific ones making their way into the everyday vocabulary of the medical marijuana user. Our cannabinoid/terpene table is also a handy guide. If you’ve just received your MMJ card or are looking to get one, or if you need further help understanding a particular term, here’s a handy guide to the most common scientific and cannabis-culture related words you will see on our site and elsewhere …

Glossary of Common Terms Found in Marijuana, Cannabis Science and the Study of Cannabinoids

A

 

Ab

Away from

Abatement

A reduction in the severity of symptoms.

Abdominal

Abdomen

Abiotic

Not related to living organisms.

Abortive

Cutting short the course of disease.

Abrasion

Friction wearing away of the top layer of skin.

Abruption

A sudden breaking away or breaking off.

Accessory

Extra or supplementary to the main element.

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in learning and memory. It is thought to be available in inadequate levels in conditions like Alzheimer’s Disease. Acetylcholine is degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and has a brief duration of action. It is one of te most abundant neurotransmitters available in the human body.

Ad

Toward

Agonist

The opposite of a receptor antagonist. An agonist is a chemical that promotes a biological response by binding to a receptor. A chemical or compound that binds to a receptor partially but not completely is known as “partial agonist”.

Terms ending in “-algia”

Pain

Allosteric Modulator

An allosteric modulator is like a volume control for a receptor. Allosteric modulators change the way in which a receptor processes a signal. Allosteric modulators do not bind to the main, active site, but a site away from the main receptor. Allosteric modulators can, however, change the way agonists interact with the rceptor site.

There are three main types of allosteric modulator: positive, negative and neutral. Positive allosteric modulators turn up the volume and increase agonist efficacy/affinity, negative allosteric modulators turn down the volume a decrease agonist affinity/efficacy , and neutral ones have no direct effect but can block other allosteric modulators.

Neurotransmitters that bind to the main, active site on a receptor are called “orthosteric modulators”.

Ambulatory

Ability to walk.

Analgesia/Analgesic

Loss of pain where pain would normally be evident without loss of consciousness. An analgesic is a drug or medicine that beats pain.

Anatomy

Parts of the body and its general structure.

Antiemetic

A drug or treatment used to beat nausea/vomiting. The opposite of an antiemetic is an emetic. Both THC and CBD have antiemetic effects. CBG may block CBD’s antiemetic effects when in moderate doses.

Anxiolytic

A drug used to reduce anxiety.

B

 

Bi-

Two

Biphasic

Many compounds produce a biphasic effect, which means low and high doses can produce opposite effects. This is certainly true of cannabinoids. THC can have stress-beating effects in low doses, and cause anxiety in higher doses. THCV is a CB1 receptor antagonist in low doses and a CB1 receptor agonist in higher doses. The effects of cannabinoids can also change over time.

Benign

An abnormal growth that is not life-threatening.

Blunt

Cannabis rolled into cigar paper, which is made from tobacco.

Bong

A filtration device (usually water or ice as the filter) most often used for smoking cannabis.

Brachi/o

Arm

C

 

Cannabidiol (CBD)

A major phytocannabinoid with lots of potential health benefits, and for most people none of the psychoactive effects. Accounts for up to 40% of the cannabis plant’s extracts, and after THC is the cannabinoid often found in largest amounts. Also seems to “balance out” the effects of THC, reducing its negative side-effects.

Cannabinoid

A chemical compound that acts on cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids can refer to phytocannabinoids (from the plant, usually but not necessarily always the cannabis plant) and endocannabinoids (cannabinoids produced naturally by the human body).

Cannaoil

Cannabis-infused oil, usually coconut or olive oil.

Cavity

Hollow space in the body containing one organ or more.

CB1 Receptor

A cannabinoid receptor that is located primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system. CB1 receptors are found in the brain, and compounds that are agonists of this receptor are psychoactive. THC is a partial agonist of the CB1 receptor, and THCV is a CB1 receptor antagonist at lower doses and a CB1 receptor agonist in higher doses. CBN may be slightly psychoactive, and may interact with CB1 very lightly. Interaction with CB1 receptors may give cannabinoids its pain killing effects.

CB2 Receptor

A cannabinoid receptor that is located throughout the body, including the brain and immune system. CB2 receptor agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists have immunomdulatory effects, and can inhibit inflammation. The terpene/cannabinoid beta-caryophyllene is a CB2 receptor agonist. Cannabichromene (CBC) is also a CB2 receptor agonist. Some postulate that there are CB3, CB4 and possibly even CB5 receptors.

Cardi/o

Heart.

Chemotype (sometimes also referred to as “Chemovar”)

A chemotype (sometimes chemovar) is a chemically distinct entity in a plant or microorganism, with differences in the composition of the secondary metabolites. Minor genetic and epigenetic changes with little or no effect on morphology or anatomy may produce large changes in the chemical phenotype. Many scientists believe that looking at chemotype is a more accurate way of classifying cannabis.

Compression

To apply pressure to stop bleeding or prevent further injury.

Cranial

Skull

Cyt/o

Cell

D

 

Decarboxylate/Decarboxylated/Decarboxylation/Decarb/Decarbed

The chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases CO2, i.e. removing a carbon atom from a carbon chain. Usually used in relation to applying heat to cannabis, whether in terms of smoking or cooking.

Dendrite/Dendron

Branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagates the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body (soma) of the neuron from which dendrites project. Dendrites essentially carry information from one cell to the next.

Derm/a, derm/o, dermat/o

Skin.

Depersonalization

A detachment within the self, regarding one’s mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself. Subjects feel they have changed and that the world has become vague, dreamlike, less real, lacking in significance or being outside reality while looking in.

Digit/Digital

Fingers and toes

Dopamine

The neurotransmitter responsible for reward-motivated behavior and motor control. Dysregulation of dopamine receptors is associated with conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Dopamine is also involved in addiction.

E

 

Ecto/Exo

Outside

Edible

A cannabis-infused product that can be eaten.

Terms ending in “-emia”

Blood

Endo

Inside

Endocannabinoid

Cannabinoids produced naturally by the human body. Anadamide (AED) and 2-Arachidonoglycerol (2-AG) are the most well-studied.

Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

The name given to the groups of cannabinoid receptors found within the brain and throughout the body. The ECS was discovered in 1990, and is now believed to be the key to modulating sleep, appetite, mood, memory and the motivation and reward center. The ECS is intimately linked with homeostasis.

Entourage Effect

Used to describe the effect cannabinoids and terpenoids have when working in concert with each other, giving different cannabis plants their unique effects. Another word that could be used is “synergy” – a term used for when the whole effect is greater than the sum of its parts.

Epi

Upon

Epinephrine

Epinephrine is a “fight-or-flight”, excitatory neurotransmitter. “Release of epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose production from the liver (glycogenolysis). In this way, the nervous and endocrine systems prepare the body for dangerous and extreme situations by increasing nutrient supply to key tissues.” https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/neurotransmitters

Etiology

The cause of a condition.

Exacerbate/exacerbation

To make worse; deterioration of a condition

F

 

Femoral

Thigh

Flavonoid

The compounds that give cannabis its flavor.

G

 

GABA – gamma-Aminobutyric acid

The neurotransmitter responsible for reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. There are two main classes of GABA: GABA-A and GABA-B. GABA plays a role in the development of the brain. GABA inhibits glutamate.

Gastr/o

Stomach

Genotype

The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype). The term was coined by the Danish botanist, plant physiologist and geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen in 1903.

Glutamate

The chief excitatory neurotransmitter. In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells. Glutamate plays an important role in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity. Glutamate is a building block for protein and many neurotransmitters. Glutamate drives the production of endocannabinoids. See here for more: http://www.phytecs.com/.

Gluteal

Buttock

Gynecology

Study and treatment of the female urinary tract and reproductive organs.

H

 

Hash/Hashish

The resin of the cannabis plant, usually bound and pressed together using ice or heat, and/or pressure

Hemat/o

Blood

Hematemesis

Blood in vomit.

Hematology

Treatment of blood diseases and malignancies.

Hist/o

Tissue

Histamine

Histamine is usually associated with allergic reactions and itching. This is because it is a neurotransmitter associated with inflammatory responses and itchy skin. Histamine regulates physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus

Homeostasis

The maintenance of a constant internal environment. The ECS, hormones and the nervous system are responsible for this.

I

 

Iatrogenic

A condition that appears as a result of treatment of another condition.

Idiopathic

Of unknown cause.

Indica or Cannabis indica

From Wikipedia:

“Cannabis indica is an annual plant in the family Cannabaceae. It is a putative species of the genus Cannabis. Whether it and Cannabis sativa are truly separate species is a matter of debate. The Cannabis indica plant is cultivated for many purposes; for example, the plant fibers can be converted into cloth.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_indica

The term “indica” is usually a reference to short, stout cannabis plants that have more of a relaxing, “body” effect. This is not always accurate, but is a term that has entered the popular cannabis lexicon and, until recently, has served a purpose in identifying particular varieties of cannabis. Whilst this method of classification is not always accurate, it has its uses. Botanists will always argue about taxonomy, so this is likely going to be a debate that lasts a long time!

Inguinal

Groin

Intestin/o

Intestine

Intractable

Difficult to cure or alleviate.

Inverse Agonist

An inverse agonist is a drug that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that of the agonist.

Terms ending in “-itis”

Inflammation

J

Joint

Cannabis rolled into a rolling paper, in preparation for smoking.

G

Ghrelin

“Ghrelin is a hormone that is produced and released mainly by the stomach with small amounts also released by the small intestine, pancreas and brain. Ghrelin has numerous functions. It is termed the ‘hunger hormone’ because it stimulates appetite, increases food intake and promotes fat storage.” https://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/ghrelin/

K

Unpressed resin glands from the cannabis plant. Kief is usually pressed together to make hashish.

L

 

Lapar/o

Abdomen, loin or flank.

Leptin

“Leptin is a hormone released from fat cells in adipose tissue. Leptin signals to the brain, in particular to an area called the hypothalamus. Leptin does not affect food intake from meal to meal but, instead, acts to alter food intake and control energy expenditure over the long term.” https://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/leptin/

Ligand

A substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

Lumbar

Loin

Terms ending in “-lysis”

Breaking down.

M

 

Mammary

Breast

Microbiology

Related to (and the study of) bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.

Mono/uni

One

My/o

Muscle

N

 

Nasal

Nose

Neonatal

Special care for newborn babies with high dependency needs.

Neur/o

Nerve

Neurology

Related to the disorders of the brain, spinal cord, or general nervous system. Study of the brain, spinal cord and nervous system.

Neurotransmitter

Chemicals that enable neurotransmission (aka synaptic transmission) – the process by which signalling molecules are released by a neuron – and transmits messages across the synapse.

Neutral Agonist

A neutral antagonist has no activity in the absence of an agonist or inverse agonist but can block the activity of either by competing at the receptor site.

Norepinephrine (NE), aka noradrenaline (NA)

Norepinephrine is responsible for the “flight or fight” effect, and its main function is to mobilize the brain and body for action.

O

 

Octopamine

Octopamine is a neurotransmitter that closely resembles norepinephrine. Like norepinephrine, octopamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter and hormone that mobilizes the body and nervous system for action. It is found in fruits like bitter orange. Epirenor, Norden, and Norfen are three examples of octopamine available as a prescription drug.

Ocul/o

Eye

Oncology

The study and treatment of cancer.

Terms ending in “-opathy”

Relating to disease.

Ophthalm/o

Eyes

Or/o

Mouth

Ot/o

Ear

P

 

Pathology

The names of disorders, diseases and injuries.

Pectoral

Chest

Pediatrics

Medical assistance or an area of medicine specializing in children.

Phenotype

The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.

Phytocannabinoid

Cannabinoids that occur naturally in the cannabis plant. There are hundreds of different types of phytocannabinoids (144 according to the last count by Dr. Lumir Hanus), of which the main two are THC and CBD. Cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), tettrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabichromene (CBC) are other examples. THC’s and CBD’s acidic counterparts, CBDA and THCA, are also cannabinoids.

Pipe

A method by which to smoke cannabis, with a hollow cylinder and two holes – a chamber that can contain cannabis and be lit and a smaller hole at the other end to smoke from. Usually made out of wood, metal or glass

Terms ending with “-pnea”

Related to breathing.

R

 

Ruderalis or Cannabis ruderalis

From Wikipedia:

“Cannabis ruderalis, or C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea, is a low-THC variety or subspecies of Cannabis which is native to Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Many scholars accept Cannabis ruderalis as its own species due to its unique traits and phenotypes which distinguish it from Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa; however, it is widely debated by many other scholars as to whether or not ruderalis is a subspecies of Cannabis sativa.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_ruderalis

Cannabis ruderalis is an “autoflowering” plant, meaning that it does not need to go through a vegetative state in order to start flowering. The maturity (age) of the plant is what causes ruderalis to flower, as opposed to its light cycle. Ruderalis plants are usually low in THC, but high in CBD. It has been successfully hybridised with other varieties of cannabis to produce quick, growing, vigorous cannabis strains with high CBD content. Cannabis ruderalis is shorter than other types of cannabis, and is ideal for those who are looking for quick and/or discreet turnover of plants.

S

Sativa or Cannabis sativa

From Wikipedia:

“Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The word “sativa” means things that are cultivated.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_sativa

Many people use the term “sativa” to refer to a large, spindly cannabis plant varietal with thin leaves and producing a distinct “up” or “energetic” effect. This is not necessarily an accurate way of identifying a cannabis variety, as the same type or “strain” of cannabis can grow differently in different environments.

Serotonin

Sometimes known as the “happy chemical”, as serotonin agonists contribute to the feelings of wellbeing and happiness. Serotonin receptors are also known as 5-HT receptors, which are so named because 5-hydroxytryptamine is the chemical term for serotonin) There are 15 known types of serotonin receptors that have an inolvement in a number of physiological processes, from mood regulation to nausea to the development of migraines and headaches.

Spliff

A mostly European term, referring to a mixture of tobacco and cannabis inside a rolling paper. Whilst not common in the US, many people use cigar paper (made from tobacco) to make “blunts”, so the practise of combining tobacco and cannabis is done in the US.

T

 

Thoracis

Chest

Tincture

Cannabis-infused solution (usually oil or alcohol) that can be taken sublingually (i.e. under the tongue).

P

 

Pulmon/o

Lungs

Psychiatry

The study and treatment of mental disorders.

R

 

Receptor Antagonist

A type of receptor ligand that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to a receptor.

Referred pain

Pain that is felt in another area to the original source of this pain.

Reflux

Going in a backwards direction.

Remission

Disappearance of the sign or signs of a disease.

Rheumatology

Related to musculoskeletal disorders (bones, joints, muscles, etc.).

Rick Simpson Oil (RSO)

RSO is a method by which the cannabinoids and terpenes from a plant’s trichomes are stripped from the rest of the plant using a solvent, ending up with a thick, sludgy, black/dark brown, highly concentrated oil.

S

 

Shatter

An highly potent extract of cannabis made from the resin of the plant.

Stimulus

Elicits a physiological response.

Subcutaneous

Beneath the skin.

Surgery

A medical operational procedure.

Synapse (aka “Chemical Synapse”)

Biological junctions through which neurons’ signals can be exchanged to each other. Non-neuronal cells found in muscles and glands can also receive messages via synapses.

Syndrome

A set of symptoms that indicate towards a certain condition, disease or abnormality.

T

 

Terpene/Terpenoid

The organic chemicals that give plants their unique smell and flavor. Examples of terpenes found in cannabis include myrcene, pinene and linalool.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. In its non decarboxylated form, THC is known as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa), and is non-psychoactive.

Titrate

The measurement and balancing of a dose of medicine.

Tri

Three

U

 

Urology

Related to problems with the bladder and kidneys.

V

 

Vaporization/Vaporize

A phase change, e.g. a solid turning into liquid. Ice, for example, is still water, even though it’s solid. To “vaporize” marijuana means to use it without combustion (see decarboxylation). You are essentially turning matter into vapor by heating the cannabis when you are vaporizing, to put it simply.

There are, of course, lots of scientific words to go through, and being a medical dictionary would mean this list would take us to a piece that’s several hundred pages long. However, the main medical and scientific terms we use on this site are listed above, and we shall explain what rarely-used scientific words mean within any article we write.

Feel free to contact us should you find a scientific word related to cannabis research in or out of this website and want explaining (or if you find the explanation confusing). We’d be happy to try and help clear up any issues you might have.

Ventral

Stomach

W

 

Wax

See “Shatter”.

Other terms for cannabis or marijuana

“Marijuana” is a slang term derived from Spanish, that is now common parlance in the world of cannabis. “Cannabis” is arguably the more scientific term, and has less of the historical baggage associated with “marijuana”. Hence, it is the preffered term here at Leafwell, althouh we may used the term “marijuana” when it makes sense contextually. Other popular terms for cannabis include (not an exhaustive list):

  • Pot
  • Weed
  • Tea
  • Mary Jane
  • Bhang (actually a Hindi term referring to a foodstuff or drink infused with cannabis resin)
  • Alice B. Toklas – a reference to writer and cannabis enthusiast, who made “pot brownies” famous.
  • Green
  • Salad
  • Whack tabacky, or “whacko tobacco”
  • Herb
  • Sinsemilla (meaning “without seeds”)
  • Skunk (more of a UK term, skunk is a variety of cannabis that has come to be mean any type of potent cannabis strain)
  • Dank
  • Devil’s lettuce
  • Meds
  • Flower / bud (referring to the green, smokable flower of the plant, as opposed to hash or any other extract)
  • Regs (referring to regular, standard cannabis)
  • Brickweed aka “mersh” or “commercial” – a reference to seeded cannabis, usally old and/or not well-grown, possibly wild cannabis. Other names include “Ragweed”, “Ditch weed”, “Reggie”, “Swag” or “Schwag”. When from the wild, “Bush weed”. As this type of cannabis was more common in the 60s/70s, it is sometimes referred to as “hippie weed”.
  • 420 – Thought to be a term coined in San Rafael, California, and has an association with the Grateful Dead as well.
  • Terms used for cannabis’ effects

  • Buzz / buzzed
  • Baked
  • Cottonmouth / Dry mouth
  • Couchlock – a reference to the relaxed feelings produced by cannabis, where a person doesn’t want to get up from the couch!
  • Fried
  • Going green or “whiteying” – overconsumption of cannabis, which may include dizziness, nausea and/or vomiting
  • High – whilst it can be used to refer to cannabis’s effects generally, some people mean “high” to specifically mean the more “up” or energetic effects of cannabis
  • Lit up
  • Munchies – the appetite-increasing effects of cannabis
  • Nature’s holiday
  • Roasted
  • Stoned – as with “high”, can be used to refer to cannabis’s effects generally, but sometimes more specifically used to refer to the more relaxed effects of cannabis
  • Toasted – sometimes used to mean “stoned” or “high”, but not necessarily overwhelmed
  • Wasted
  • Terms for Butane Hash Oil (BHO) Extracts

  • BHO is a term used for a highly concentrated form of cannabis, with the cannabinoids extracted using butane. This forms a honey-colored, oily substance that is similar to RSO, but can be smoked, vaped or “dabbed” for a concentrated hit of cannabinoids. Such oils are not ideal for first-time users. Even experienced cannabis enthusiasts ought to be careful with such extracts, as they can be very powerful, especially if it is THC extract.
  • BHO comes under a number of names, usually referring to their consistency. These names include:
  • Honey oil – gooey; honey-like.
  • Wax or honeycomb – stiffer, wax-like consistency.
  • Budder – Consistency between honey oil and wax.
  • Crumble – solid, crumbly form of wax.
  • Pull-and-snap – taffy-like consistency, and can be broken up into pieces.
  • Shatter – hard and glass-like, and will shatter if tapped or dropped